The march on Whitehall on Saturday was the latest following Robinson’s imprisonment for contempt of court last month.
Steel fences and bottles were thrown at police, who made five arrests.
During the protest there were scenes of violence which saw bottles, metal barriers and other objects thrown at officers, police said in a statement.
Five officers have reported injuries, which are not serious.
The protesters also took over an open-topped bus for sight-seers, holding up flags and placards.
Two of those arrested were held over an assault on a police officer, one for possessing an offensive weapon, one for possession of a flare and another for causing criminal damage to a bus.
The founder of the English Defence League, Tommy Robinson – real name Stephen Christopher Yaxley-Lennon – was sentenced to 10 months in jail in May.
He left the EDL, known for its violent street protests and accused of Islamophobia, in 2013, claiming he could not contain its extremist elements.
The Dutch far-right anti-Muslim politician Geert Wilders was among those present at the demonstration.
On Twitter, he said he had been questioned at the UK border regarding the purpose of his visit.
A pleasure to meet Geert Wilders again and to listen to his great speech at the Free Tommy Robinson rally. pic.twitter.com/B382WkRG28
He said he told the immigration officers that he was in the country to free Tommy Robinson and was let in after waiting a few minutes with my security detail.
UKIP leader Gerard Batten MEP attended the demonstration and said on Twitter A pleasure to meet Geert Wilders again and to listen to his great speech at the Free Tommy Robinson rally.
Neither Batten nor Wilders made any mention of the violence at the protests on Twitter.
Robinson, 35, pleaded guilty to contempt after using social media to broadcast details of an ongoing trial.
The trial was subject to blanket reporting restrictions, a routine legal process in English law designed to protect the impartiality of a jury.
Robinson had previously been given explicit instructions against disrupting court proceedings.
He was told he was on a knife edge after attempting to film four men at Canterbury Crown Court who were accused of gang-raping a teenage girl.
News Source SkyNews